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9 Simple things that are, in fact, very difficult

You may not thought that..

1. The mathematical proof of the "1 + 1 = 2" 300 pages of the equation "1 + 1 = 2" perhaps the first mathematical task that we learn as addition and subtraction seem the simplest concepts in mathematics. If you have an apple and you are given one more apple, you have two apples it is. It seems that it is a simple equation that is clear to everyone from a young age. It's hard to believe, but the evidence of "1 + 1 = 2" represents the work of more than 300 pages, and it was not proven until the 20th century. At the beginning 20th-century mathematician Bertrand Russell decided to prove conclusively that the math works, and decided to start with the simple concepts that we know, proving "1 + 1 = 2". However, what seems a simple task, in fact, took mathematician and philosopher 372 pages of complex calculations. The decision was published in the three-volume work "Principia Mathematica" ( "Principles of Mathematics").

2. The definition of "almost certain" probability theory If we want to say that an event is almost certain to happen, how do we explain this a little child? Perhaps you will say that the event is almost guaranteed to happen, but then you have to explain what "almost", which further complicate the problem. The fact that "almost certainly" - a very vague concept. Fortunately it exists in statistical mathematics, where it is fully explained. Unfortunately, this explanation seems rather daunting. To put it simple, even if the events of 100-percent chance that it will happen, it does not necessarily happen. For example, if you toss a coin a million times, statistically the chances of a coin falling face at least once actually is one. However, there is an infinitely small chance that a coin will fall each time the reverse side. Although the probability that an event will occur in all respects is guaranteed, it is impossible to say.

3. How does a bicycle? Bicycles there are more than 100 years, and ever since they were invented, we developed land, sea and air modes of travel. We have planes that fly around the world in a matter of hours, and it seems that we are already a long time everything is clear about the simple bicycle.However, this is not the case, and scientists still argue about how the bicycle, or more precisely, it remains stable . For a long time it was thought that the gyroscopic force of rotation of the wheels held the bike but when scientists have developed a special bike with a device that counteract the gyroscopic action of the wheels, he remained stable, and no one could explain why. since the dynamic properties of the bike are not the domain of science, which scientists want to spend your time, maybe we will not soon know the answer.

4. What is the length of the rope? If someone will give you a piece of rope and ask how long it is, you decide that the answer to this question is very simple. But when the question was asked a group of scientists, the answer was "it depends on a number of factors", but rather on who you ask. Mathematicians say that a piece of rope can theoretically have an infinite length, while the physicists will argue that is the nature of subatomic physics and the fact that the atoms can be in two places at the same time, precise measurement of the rope length is not possible.

5. Why do people yawn? Yawning - is not well understood phenomenon. Even the talk about yawning can make you start doing it. There is no function like her. Perhaps you are familiar with the theory that the purpose of yawning is to maintain the clarity of consciousness, as if yawning we swallow more oxygen portion. This is quite reasonable, since we often yawn when tired, and we were bored, and when we need an extra burst of energy. However, experiments have refuted this assumption. In fact, there is no generally accepted theory about why we yawn. There is also a theory that zevotaohlazhdaet brain, since experiments have shown that during yawning brain temperature changes. However, the answer to why yawning is contagious.

 6.Where right and which is left? How do you explain the concept of "right and left" to someone who does not know what those words mean? You will begin to explain in terms of your relative position with respect to a fixed object? Or try to think outside the box and refer to the Earth's rotation? What if you had to explain the concept of the stranger, whose planet rotates differently or who can not see? This question occupies the minds of philosophers for many years, as in the absence of a reference point, it is very difficult to determine what is right and left. So the German philosopher Immanuel Kant once said: "Let's imagine that the first thing would be created by a human hand, and it should be a right or left hand."However, with one hand it is impossible to explain what is a hand without the presence of the other. The right and left hand are different from each other, but if you need to describe them will be the same description as they are the same. But they are different, because the left hand does not fit into the right glove. However, this difference can not be described without the presence of the other hand. For your information, there is a book of 400 pages dedicated to the philosophy of the right and left.

7. We enjoy not for pleasure pleasure - it is a strange thing, because it is subjective. For every person who likes a certain food, a song or a movie there another, who also hates all of the above. We think that the reason why we enjoy something, is the fact that it brings us pleasure, but scientists have proved that this is not always the case. For example, a person can be persuaded that he likes a certain food or wine, if you say him that it is very expensive. Pleasure is not the main factor. In marketing, this is known as "the effect of Chivas Regal", named after the Scotch whiskey with the same name, whose sales increased after lifting product prices.Also, experiments were conducted in which wine experts forced to think that the cheapest bottle of wine was exceptional exposure, swapping label. the pleasure of the product has not been based on love and worthy assessment of wine, but only on the fact that someone said that it is good.

 8. Reason mosquito bite If you once bitten by mosquitoes, it's likely you've heard of the possible versions of why they did it. Maybe blame your scent, or blood or your shirt. Scientists believe that all of these factors can cause the mosquito bite is you. Since 20 percent of people inexplicably attractive to mosquitoes, and no one can come to an agreement, why it happens. The simple answer may be something in human blood, which attracts mosquitoes. However, it appears that mosquitoes are attracted chemical signal emitted by the body, present in 85 percent of people. This explains why some people mosquitoes almost never touch. There is also a theory that attracts mosquitoes dark or bright colors. In other words, all the fault of your clothes.

 9. Rock-paper-scissors - the most serious game in the world Nothing could be simpler game "rock-paper-scissors", and this is the best way to resolve the dispute, since it is all a coincidence. However, not all so simple. There are dozens of works devoted to this subject. The game has become a favorite topic of research psychologists, since it is closely intertwined with the human subconscious reaction and game theory. There are dozens of strategies in this regard, to gain an advantage in the game, including the game blindfolded, to avoid the influence of the subconscious language of your opponent's body.
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